In 1687, the Venetians advanced to conquer the Acropolis, the Athens fortress, and to drive back the Ottomans who held it. The Venetiansĺ advance on Athens took place during the second Turkish-Venetian war in the Peloponnese, a region of Greece which had been under Venetian rule for three decades. It is noteworthy that Morosini, commander of the Venetian troops that besieged Acropolis, was opposed to this military campaign against Athens. Establishing their domination in Athens proved an arduous job for the Venetians.
Their soldiers were heavily armed with howitzers and cannons and were arrayed close to the Acropolis. In total, fifteen cannons were placed on the hill of Muses, nine on Pnyka, and 5 howitzers on Areios Pagos hill. The Venetians bombed the Acropolis continuously for four days. On 26 September 1687, one of their shells eventually penetrated the roof igniting the cache of gunpowder that the Ottomans had stored in the Parthenon, blowing away the central part of the temple. The incessant bombing also caused three walls of the main cellar to crumble as well as part of the frieze. Six columns collapsed on the south side and eight on the north side. On the east side only one column was left standing. Consequently, the roof of the Parthenon caved in along with the epistyle, a number of triglyphs and the metopes.